Final Paper is Here
Title IX was the first federal law established with a goal to end sexual discrimination in educational institutions against both employees and students. Title IX is apart of the Educational Amendments of 1972 and it states: ďNo person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from the participation in, or denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving federal assistance.Ē One might think this to be a step in the right direction, and it is, but Title IX has also shown that it still possesses many faults. Many of the colleges throughout the nation have had to cut some of their menís athletic programs in order to comply with the law as well as institute womenís programs where interest might actually be lacking. For this reason, Title IX should be closely examined and possible revisions should be considered.
The main purpose of Title IX is to create equal opportunities and treatment for women across the nation. There are three main areas that Title IX affects: issues involving financial aid, the levels of interests and abilities, and all areas that involve the athletes and the care they receive. For one, financial aid must be awarded based on the number of male and female athletes which in turn must be proportionate to the ratio of men to women athletes. Secondly, the accommodations of interests and abilities must be of equal status. These accommodations include the opportunities for athletes proportionate to the study body ratio and the fact that an institution can show a history and continuing practice of program expansion. Lastly, the women and menís benefits, opportunities, and treatments afforded sports participants are required to be similar but not necessarily identical. Some of these benefits entail having equivalent equipment and supplies (quality, suitability, quantity, etc), the schedules of games and practices, transportation and accommodations to their respective events, and the available tutoring opportunities. It is important to note that quality is more important than quantity. Since there might be a smaller amount of females at certain colleges, as long as the quality is equal to that of the menís they do not need to have the same amount as the men.
Title IX has clearly helped women all over the nation receive equal opportunities at universities as shown by some statistics recorded in 1994. For instance, 38 percent of medical degrees in the nation went to women, compared to 9 percent in 1972. Forty-three percent of law degrees were obtained by women compared to seven percent in 1972, and forty-four percent of all doctoral degrees compared to twenty-five percent in 1977. Although these are promising and encouraging numbers, many supporters of Title IX fail to look at the negative results that Title IX has had on the menís athletics and programs across the nation. Due to the fact that menís and womenís athletic programs are required to be proportionate to the student body of their universities, many colleges have had to cut menís teams in order to add womenís programs. Not only do the menís teams disappear, but so do the scholarships.
Women should have the ability and right to an equal opportunity to participate in sports at the college level, but this should also be done without jeopardizing the menís programs. Athletic directors must now search for women to join their varsity teams in order to comply with Title IX. This could easily lead to the decline in the quality and competitiveness of the female athletics across the country. The decline would be a result of female athletes who might not be of the caliber a university would like because they would just be trying to fill positions. According to Xaochin Clair Yan, since the year 2000 there have been 435 menís teams across America that have been eliminated. Yan also mentioned that according to recent studies over the past five years that for each additional female participant of collegiate athletics there have been 3.6 men cut from activity. Marcus Epstein comments on the growth of womenís athletics bringing to our attention that not only have the womenís programs increased, but just the rowing crews have more than doubled in the 4 year span from 1995 to 1999. Epstein seems to be suggesting here that when womenís rowing programs across the nation are doubling so quickly it seems apparent that many athletic directors are simply grabbing any female they deem athletic enough to add to their program. Having to comply in such a hasty manner is not what should be taking place and is most of what Title IX has led to. Athletic directors for the nationís colleges also sometimes appear to frantically hand out scholarships to women who look as if they meet the expectations of being athletes, even if they have no prior skills in the particular sport. This is just a waste of scholarship funds that could have previously belonged to deserving menís programs and are now handed to someone who should not really be given the money.
Not only is Title IX affecting the athletics of the college programs across the nation, is has also started to affect the communities and youth of America. In California a law was passed called AB 2404. This law requires there to be the same percentage of boys and girls teams in a community. This will most likely lead to counties and cities that do not have the money for the programs or cannot recruit enough girls to cut back on their boysí programs. Another thing to think about is the conflicting interest of boys and girls at younger ages. The passing of this law is just another example of Title IX hurting the programs across the nation rather than helping them.
Title IX definitely deserves a revision and action needs to be taken. If Title IX is continually met with approval and inaction, then this amendment that began as a piece of legislation to improve our nationís schools could quite possibly be the cause of the decline of menís collegiate athletics (which is one of the major sources of income across the nationís campuses). Women should have the right and opportunity to participate in athletics at the collegiate level, and while Title IX gives them a better chance to do so, it also hinders the menís athletics. Upon reevaluations of Title IX and continual editing processes I believe it will be made clear that there is a better way to accomplish and solve the problem of gender discrimination with minimal damage to the menís programs across the nation.
Curtis, Mary and Christine Grant. 2004. ďAbout Title IX.Ē September 2004;
http://bailiwick.lib.uiowa.edu/ge/aboutRE.html [Accessed 26 Jan 2005].
Epstein, Marcus. 2003. ďTitle IX.Ē September 2003;
http://www.lewrockwell.com/epstein/epstein12.html [Accessed 25 Jan 2005].
Pennington, Bill. 2004. "Off the Sidelines" New York Times Upfront. Sep. 20,
2004. Vol.137, Iss. 2; pg. 25, 1 pgs.
Sadker, David. 2004. ďWhat is Title IX?Ē August 2004;
http://www.american.edu/sadker/titleix.htm [Accessed 26 Jan 2005].
Yan, Xiaochin Claire. 2004. "The Whole Title IX Yards" December 2004;
http://www.pacificresearch.org/pub/con/2004/con_04-12-09.html [Accessed 25 Jan 2005].
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- Cy last edited on 19 April 2005 at 9:04 am by Cy