draft of pimptastic's paper
In 1964 Congress passed the Civil Rights Act, which made unlawful discrimination based on race, color or national origin. In 1972 the Civil Rights Act was amended by the Education Amendments. Title IX of the Education Amendments extended the protection granted in the Civil Rights Act to include protection from discrimination based on sex:
No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, or denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving federal assistance
The provisions of Title IX affects almost every higher learning institute in the country, because almost every one receives federal funding in the form of a budget, grant, or financial aid given to the students. Title IX provisions have begun to bring about many changes in public institutions across the counrty; however, many more changed need to be made before there is true equality. I believe Title IX should continue until this goal is reached
One of the ways Title IX is applied to colleges and universities around the country is promoting equality in college sports; Title IX requires schools to give equal opportunities to students regardless of sex. There are three aspects of Title IX which a college athletic department must comply with: participation, scholarships, and other areas. The participation aspect of Title IX can be followed if a college by offering proportionate opportunities for both sexes to be involved in sports based upon student population. The scholarships awarded must be appropriated in a manner that the portion of aid given to students of each sex is proportional to their participation. The category of other benefits requires equal allocation of equipment, number of competitive events schedules, ability to receiving coaching, locker rooms, practice facilities, etc.
Title IX has had much success in its thirty three years of existence. Before Title IX’s existence only one of every twenty seven high school girls played a varsity sport, now that number had changed to one of every two and a half. Before Title IX women comprised of only two percent of all collegiate athletes; now the percentage of female collegiate athletes has jumped to almost forty percent. The number of girls six and over playing soccer and basketball has also risen fifty and twenty percent, respectively. The number of women participating in sports at NCAA member institutions has risen from thirty one thousand in 1971 to one hundred five thousand in 1994.
One can not deny that Title IX has done much to promote fairness and equality in its application to college sports; however, it has not reached its goal of equal opportunity—female students comprise almost fifty percent of all college students, but on average only forty percent of student athletes. Male college athletes receives almost thirty five percent more scholarship dollars than female students. Schools are encouraged to follow the provisions of Title IX otherwise the government will withhold federal funding; however, since the creation of Title IX no school has lost their federal funding due to Title IX violations despite the fact that nost institutions do not act in accordance with Title IX standards. Title IX has had many accomplishments, but it has not accomplished it’s objective. I believe Title IX should continue on its current course until there is no longer any discrimination based upon sex in college sports.
Recently Title IX has become an issue for debate. One claim for the opposition of Title IX is that the current interpretation of Title IX is discriminatory towards men. They claim that due to the forced parity between male and female college athletes, universities have reduced funding for male sports, and also that the measure acts as an illegal quota system. In other words the implementation of Title IX actually violates the ideas in Title IX, because of its unfairness toward male athletes. An example is the National Wrestling Coaches Association in January 2002; the NWCA sued the Department of Education claiming the execution of the Title IX regulations have forced schools to stop male wrestling, gymnastics and other male sports. The case was dismissed later that year by U. S. District Court Judge Emmet Sullivan.
There are many people out there who disagree with the arguments of the NWCA, and believe Title IX is not to blame for the recent decline in some men’s athletics. One such proponent of Title IX is Andrew Zimbalist, author of May the best team win: Baseball Economics and Public Policy and professor of Economics at Smith College in Northampton, Massachusetts. Zimbalist believes there are other reasons for the decline in these sports; he also suggests other options for schools so they will not have to eliminate some sports. His main argument is that during the period from 1984, when the Grove City Supreme Court decision crippled Title IX until 1993, when the Bush administration began implementing the act again, the number of men’s wrestling and gymnastics teams dropped. During this period there was a greater decrease in the number of female gymnastic teams than male gymnastic teams. In Zimbalist’s article, “What to do about Title IX,” he points to a report from the U.S. General Accounting Office on gender equality in college athletics stating that there has been a net gain in the number of male athletic teams between 1981 and 1999. Zimbalist also claims schools become wasteful spenders when it comes to the “money” sports; he suggests the reduction of scholarships to over funded programs, or reduce the salaries of the coaches of these sports. His conclusion is that the budget problem with college sports is not Title IX, but waste.
In conclusion, Title IX has provided many opportunities for women to participate in sports. Since its addition to the Civil Rights Act, Title IX has helped the number of female athletes participating in college sports increase dramatically; however, there are still many inequalities which exist in collegiate athletic programs which are in violation of Title IX regulations. Until college athletic programs give equal opportunities to both male and female students Title IX should continue on its current path.
"Title VII, Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended" http://www.dol.gov/oasam/regs/statutes/2000e-16.htm
• “What to do About Title IX" by Zimbalist, Andrew Gender Issues; Spring2003, Vol. 21 Issue 2, p55, 5p
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- pimptastic last edited on 6 April 2005 at 11:55 pm by pimptastic