1. Alan Kay
2. Both languages came from Simula, but Smalltalk went for portability and usability where C++ went for speed and efficiency.
3. Sketchpad included the capability to create "master" drawings that could be used to create "instance" drawings. If a change was made to the master, the same change would show up in each instance. These drawings were the precursors to objects and demonstrated the first occurrence of inheritance.
4. Structural programming. Fortran, maybe?
Structured programming is a style rather than a parallel to o-o. It is a way to program in an imperative language, of which Fortran is indeed an instance. Rich LeBlanc