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Issue 6 Resources

The US government should undertake a large-scale research and development program to achieve energy independence by the year 2030.

This issue requires that you include a proposal for funding this program.

Please follow these Formatting Guidelines so that others can find the resource AND it will be easier to use these in your final position paper!

When you add a resource, also add a page for evaluations of that resource, and don't forget to take credit for the contribution, like this:

Smith, Mike. 2000. “All the Facts,” Facts and Opinion Quarterly 10: 51-68.
This is what the article says, it says lots of things and here is where I give a basic summary of its contents.

Evaluations of Smith, Mike


The US Department of Energy. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy;Solar:Photovoltaics. Last updated: 4/27/2004.
This site contains an explination of what photovoltaics are and how they work. This site also touches upont the issue of cost and the applications in which this method can be used.
Evaluation of Photovoltaics by The US Department of Energy

The US Department of Energy. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory. National Center for Photovoltaics. Last edited: 7/12/1999.
This site contains information on the leading energy source of the future. Photovoltaics are being researched and developed as the "hottest" source of attaining energy on the market. This site addresses cost and efficiency of the system as well as details on how it works.
Evaluation of the National Center for Photovoltaics

I also went to this site called and it was really weird! This guy started to address microwave weapons in Iraq and then told what the site was supposed to be about (his reasearch on photovoltaics and nano energy cells). But then he went on a rampage about politics and corrupt stuff! I am really confused by this person, so if anyone wants to check it out (Dr. Barke) I would be interested to hear your take on it. It is quite scary, really.
Evaluation of weird site

PAQUETTE,CAROLE. The New York Times. Published: October 17, 2004, Sunday.
This article is about the growing trend on Long Island of utilizing the suns power through solar panals to create energy for the home.
Evaluation of The New York Times


Shell Renewables. Alternative Energy Sources.
This site provides basic information about the different technologies currently available to ease dependence of fossil fuels. Although this site is not unbiased, since it is a corporate website, it does show how beneficial each technology will be.
Evaluation of Shell Renewables site

International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. The Hydrogen Economy of the 21st Century: A Sustainable Development Scenario. Published March 2002.
This article describes realistically how the global economy could shift from fossil-fuel based to renewable energy based, with hydrogen being the keystone technology.
Evaluation of Hydrogen Economy site

DTI Renewables. Renewable Energy Sources.
This site provides a good overview of information of the different types of renewable energies and their viabilities. The practicality of these sources is written with respect to the UK but still is relevant.
Evaluation of the DTI site

Contributed by ZanCRX

Clayton, Mark. "Breaking Free From Energy Dependence." USA Today. Oct 2004;
Accessed 24 January 2005.
This article tells about a few of the possible plans for energy independence and some of the problems with them. Some solutions are using ligher materials to build cars and to research alternative fuels.

Evaluation of Clayton, Mark

"Renewable Energy Sources- alternative energy." DTI. Accessed 24 January 2005.
Although it is a European website, this site gives information about several types of renewable energy sources including hydrogen, solar and wind-generated power.

Evaluation of DTI

Peer Reviewed Source:
Brown, Kathryn S. "Bright Future–or Brief Flare–for Renewable Energy?" Science. July 1999.
Accessed 25 January 2005.
This article describes the status and progress of renewable energy souces in the US. While it is a little old, and some of its facts and statistics are most likely outdated, it still provides useful information on the topic.

Evaluation of Brown, Kathryn S.

Contributed by ShinyKobold

"Fuel Cell Energy." Fuel Cell Energy Incorporated 2004 Oct 2004; Accessed 24 January 2005.
Homepage for FCE Inc. that briefly explains how it is the leading company in fuel cells research and development. Fuel cells not only contributes to US energy independence, but also provide a much cleaner alternative to the way energy is obtained.

"Geothermal Energy Research." Idaho National Engineering and Envirnomental Laboratory Accessed 24 January 2005.
This Site has a list of publications on the research behind (annual reports) geothermal energy and also general infromation on it as well including how it is marginally more economical for consumers and economically competitive with foreign dependence for energy (i.e. oil).

Contributed by Whyllus

Solar cells are a viable source, especially those developed at Tech.

The source that some say is the leading cause of global warming may be another supplement for our energy demands.

Hydrogen is another option that is already being explored. But with full government backing, the rewards will be gigantic.

Contributed by Ingue86

McAuley, John W. 2003. "Global Sustainability and Key Needs in future Automotive Design." Environ. Sci. Technol. 37. p. 5414-5416.

This peer-reviewed article outlines the need for a paradigm shift in automotive design; basically, a move away from steel and iron construction to high strength composite plastics and possibly more aluminum. Significantly reducing car weight is the primary focus, as this article tried to push mono-material parts from polypropylene. It also makes a small mention of prohibitive taxes some governments put on fuels.
Evaluations of McAuley, John W.

McFarlane, Robert. 2004. "A Declaration of Energy Independence" Wall Streeet Journal (Eastern Edition) Dec 20, 2004. p.A15.

This article outlines some basic methods by which America can better achieve energy independence. First of all, "retooling" our vehicles with better, yet lighter materials to boost fuel efficiency and extracting hydrogen from natural gas. In fact, it suggests that natural gas would be a good alternative to crude oil, as Russia has one of the largest extractable reserves of natural gas, subverting OPEC.
Document URL
Evaluation of McFarlane, Robert

Ogden, Joan M. "Prospects for Building a Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure." Annual Review of Energy & the Environment Vol. 24 Issue 1. p.227, 53p

As this paper is around 53 pages, I have only read the abstract at this point. It details and discusses the major issues surrounding a "hydrogen energy infrastructure." It also goes on about how hydrogen is one of the few relatively renewable resources, as the sources for it are beyond numerous.
Document URL
Evaluation of Ogden, Joan M.

Contributed by Hybrido

John Cassidy. 11 October 2004. "Is energy independence an impossible goal?". The New Yorker.

Article at GT library magazine archive:

This article talks about the different ways people claim to achieve energy independence and concludes that now is not the time to think of this matter. It's better to just wait and let energy sources play out for a while.
Evaluate "Is energy independence an impossible goal?"

Stephen P.A Brown. October 1, 1996. "Directions for U.S. Energy Conversation and Independence." Business Economics Peer-Reviewed Journal.

This journal article discusses the problems the U.S. may face in the future if nothing is done to change our energy dependence and suggests practical solutions for fixing the problem. This article is availible from the GT Library's Journal archive.
Evaluate "Directions for U.S. Energy Conversation and Independence."

Contributed by JoeCool
Before getting started, knowing the facts might prove to be very helpful. This link has a collection of all the facts one needs to know to get started on supporting this issue.
Evaluate "Energy Independence: The Facts"
This is a site I used for statistical data and factual data about hydrogen as an alternative energy source. The statistical data in all these sites seem to vary tremendously, hence I only ended up using the factual data about hydrogen as a fuel.
This is another site which provided some useful information about fuel cells-an application of hydrogen (used as an energy source).
This is a report by Renewable Hydrogen Forum giving some useful factual and statistical data about how hydrogen is useful and the actual future of hydrogen.
Another interesting article that I came across which aided me in my research
This is a summary of the conference which took place in September 2003 and was held by the American Jewish Congress. Though I feel that this meeting had more of a political agenda than a scientific agenda, it is still a good resource alterting us of the international politics regarding Energy Independence

Evaluations of
Having resources which support my claim is not enough. Therefore, this is an article by Tom Kenworthy in USA Today which claims that the Energy Independence goal of the US is just a pipe dreams. This is a good resource because it adds another prespective to the policy and shows the week aspects of the policy. Thus, one will know where to expect and attack by the critics!
I really support this topic and I feel that from all the issues listed , this is the most important one. Therefore, no matter how many resources I find, I feel that they are not enough. Therefore, this is a page which is very useful explaining the facts of all other energy sources and organizations which are involved in the battle for energy independence

Council of Foreign Relations, “CFR Policy after 9/11: Energy Policy” [web page] Copyright 2004; [Accessed Jan 2005]
Themis Evaluation 1

Rocky Mountain Institute, “Winning the Oil Endgame: Executive Summary” [web page] 2005; [Accessed Jan 2005]
Themis Evaluation 2

Mark Clayton “Breaking free from energy dependence” 24 Oct 2004; USA Today; [Accessed Jan 2005]
Themis Evaluation 3

Ydstie, John "Fuel Cells Could Cut Oil Dependence" 7 March 2002; National Public Radio, All Things Considered; [Accessed Feb 22, 2005]
Themis Evaluation 4

Contributed by themis

Mark C Winslow, "Technology Plan: Coal Fuels." National Energy and Technology Laboratory, Dec 2004;
This article gives a brief overview of the US dependence on foreign oil while we export coal. The largest domestic source of hydrogen is coal and it gives examples of other uses of coal and how we can shy away from foreign energy sources and rely on our coal. Finally, it gives ideas for further research and current research options.
Evaluations of Mark Winslow

Chunshan Song, "Overview of Hydrogen Production Options for Hydrogen Energy Development, Fuel-Cell Fuel Processing and Mitigation of CO2 Emissions." Pittsburgh Coal Conference Papers, Sep 2003;
This article discusses different methods to create hydrogren in a gas form(H2) through various processes and from different natural materials. Natural H2 is almost non-existent.
Evaluations of Chunshan Song


Tom Kenworthy. "Energy independence may be a pipe dream." In USA Today 10/24/2004. This article is not for energy independence, but it states many facts pertaining to energy use today, which needs to be considered when talking about a future energy use program.

Amanda Griscom, "A Declaration of Energy Independence." [web page] 30 June 2003. <""> This article talks about different organizations trying to start American energy independence.

Evaluations for "A Declaration of Energy Independence."

Matt Bivens, "Fighting for America's Energy Independence." [web page] 28 March 2002. <""> This article talks about the political discussions made about American energy independence.


"Basic Information." A site from the Evironmental Protection Agency no author.
This article gives all of the basic information about fuel cell usage in cars as a means of power and the steps being taken thus far.

"Methanol Basics." Environmental Protection Agency Technology Staff.
This article gives all the information and benefits of using methanol in vehicles instead to reduce dependence of imported petroleum.

Contributed By FlemDogg

Energy World, November/December 2004. Energy Institute.
Includes many articles discussing different aspects of the energy problems our country faces, including limited oil and the conversion to renewable resources. Good quality, depth and reliability.

energy News...Interpretation...Analysis, Fall 2004. Business Communication Company; Norwalk, CT.
Includes many discussions of energy issues and technology, with each article examining the issue at hand from many perspectives (ie- government, economics, etc.) Moderate quality, depth and reliability.

Source of summary of "Ending the Energy Stalemate: A Bipartisan Strategy to Meet America's Energy Challenges," as well as full text (review of this document will be posted later). Excellent quality, depth and reliability.


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