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Evaluations by Pratt, Adam
Evaluations by FB5945

Equality is important in American society. Since the founding of our country, we have strived for many different types of equality. The struggle for slavery and the struggle that women faced in order to vote are just two examples of the never ending struggle for equality. Despite women being able to vote, women still struggle to get on equal footing with men. Title IX is a mandate by the federal government in order to insure equality between women and men. It has been in place for 33 years and has impacted American society on many levels from education to athletics. The benefits from Title IX are numerous. Overall, Title IX has had a beneficial effect on high school and college athletics and should be continued.

Title IX came into effect in the 1970’s and since the amendment in 1975 that dealt with athletics, it has been influential in the development of women throughout the country. It was developed in order to decrease discrimination, and to increase the amount of opportunities and participation for females in high school and college athletics. Before the passage of Title IX, females were greatly underrepresented

Through many studies, Title IX has continued to show that there are many health benefits resulting from females participating in athletics. Females who participate in athletics have decreased risks for many health problems. Females who play sports are less likely to develop breast cancer later on in life, less likely to have unwanted pregnancies, less likely to have drug problems, and they are less likely to have sexual intercourse at a young age. The increased amount of exercise females receive while participating in athletics is beneficial to their overall health also. There is also a direct correlation with the mental health of a female athlete and a female non-athlete. A female athlete is less likely to suffer from depression and other mental disorders. The health benefits resulting from participation in athletics from Title IX are making the American society a better place.

Health benefits are not the only benefits resulting for Tiltle IX. Females who participate in athletics also get many other benefits. From participating in athletics, females have more confidence, self-esteem, and pride. These characteristics are important in development and can lead a female to a better life. Also, girls who participate in high school athletics are more likely to graduate from high school. They are also more likely to go to college. Another important benefit of Title IX is that it has disposed a great amount of sex discrimination. It has called for equality for men and women. Title IX has allowed females in high school and college athletics access to many more opportunities which has served to increase other areas in their lives.


Here is my final paper:

Equality is important in American society. Since the founding of our country, we have strived for many different types of equality. The struggle for slavery and the struggle that women faced in order to vote are just two examples of the never ending struggle for equality. Despite women being able to vote, women still struggle to get on equal footing with men. Title IX is a mandate by the federal government to insure equality between women and men. It has been in place for 33 years and has impacted American society on many levels from education to athletics. The benefits from Title IX are numerous. Overall, Title IX has had a beneficial effect on high school and college athletics and should be continued.

Title IX came into effect in the 1970’s and since the amendment in 1975 that dealt with athletics, it has been influential in the development of women throughout the country. Six major issues were addressed by Title IX, but the most controversial issue was athletics. The purpose of Title IX was to “give equal opportunities for both sexes in intramural, interscholastic, and intercollegiate athletics” (Newcombe 1981, 556). It was developed in order to decrease discrimination, and to increase the amount of opportunities and participation for females in high school and college athletics. Title IX had three major sections. Colleges and universities must comply by making these sections equal for both men and women: financial assistance or scholarship, other program areas, and the interests and abilities of all students (Newcombe 1981, 556). Before the passage of Title IX, females were greatly underrepresented in athletics and funding for female sports did not compare with the funding received by male athletic programs (Donnelly). The lack of opportunities for women is “one of the sharpest examples of inequality between the sexes” (Newcombe 1981, 557). This lack of opportunities has since changed. Title IX has created many new opportunities and since the 1970’s, the number of women participating in athletics has doubled (Newcombe 1981, 557).

Through many studies, Title IX has continued to show that there are many health benefits resulting from females participating in athletics. Females who participate in athletics have decreased risks for many health problems. Females who play sports are less likely to develop breast cancer later on in life, less likely to have unwanted pregnancies, less likely to have drug problems or to smoke cigarettes, and they are less likely to have sexual intercourse at a young age. Just one to three hours of exercise a week can reduce a women’s chance of breast cancer by 20-30% (Lopiano 2001). The increased amount of exercise females receive while participating in athletics is beneficial to their overall health also. There is also a direct correlation with the mental health of a female athlete and a female non-athlete. A female athlete is less likely to suffer from depression and other mental disorders (Donnelly). The health benefits resulting from participation in athletics from Title IX are making the American society a better place.

Health benefits are not the only benefits resulting for Tiltle IX. Females who participate in athletics also receive many life benefits. From participating in athletics, females have more confidence, self-esteem, and pride (Lopiano 2001). These characteristics are important in development and can lead a female to a better life. Also, girls who participate in high school athletics are more likely to graduate from high school. They are also more likely to go to college (Donnelly). Another important benefit of Title IX is that it has disposed of a great amount of sexual discrimination. It has called for equality between men and women. Title IX has allowed females in high school and college athletics access to many more opportunities which have served to increase other areas in their lives. Female athletes learn skills needed for success in everyday life. They learn skills such as teamwork, goal setting, and the pursuit of excellence. These are also skills needed for the workplace. 80% of female executives in Fortune 500 companies were athletic (Lopiano 2001). This shows the great impact that Title IX has on the future of American women.

Title IX has been scrutinized from the beginning. Critics of Title IX say that men’s athletics suffer. This is not the case. Title IX does not require that men’s athletic programs be cut in order to add women’s. If men’s programs are cut, it is usually because of poor planning on the part of the school to get more funding or poor planning to find different ways to make the men’s and women’s sports programs equal. Men’s sports participation has not suffered according to statistics. Women have gained 3,784 programs and men have gained 36 since Title IX came into effect (Lopiano 2001). Clearly, men’s programs have not suffered.

Title IX has accomplished a great deal. Colleges have made great progress, yet colleges around the United States have still not met all of the requirements of Title IX. Women’s sports participation has increased, but still does not rival men’s. 208,866 men participate, yet only 150,916 women participate (Lopiano 2001). This phenomenon is blamed on a lack of interest by critics, but according to many supporters of Title IX “opportunity drives interest and ability” (Lopiano 2001). More opportunities need to be available so more women will participate. Financially, men still receive more money than women. Men receive over 133 million more dollars in scholarships each year than women (Lopiano 2001). This is not fair to all the hard working female athletes in high school who deserve a share of scholarship money. The reason most colleges give as to why they do not comply is that they cannot get enough financial resources. Title IX stipulates that it is the college’s responsibility to find ways to reapportion funds to meet all requirements of Title IX. Also, the federal government does not help in the fight to accomplish the objectives of Title IX. The Office of Civil Rights which is in charge of overseeing the implementation of Title IX is not doing its job (Lopiano 2001). It does not punish schools that do not comply. It does not take away funds, as it should do. This needs to be changed in order to fully see all of the beneficial effects Title IX can offer.

Title IX is beneficial to America in general. Title IX promotes equality and as a country, the people of the United States should want equality within high school and college sports. Because of the health benefits and overall life benefits, Title IX is shown to be beneficial. Title IX should be continued because the full effects have not been reached. By continuing Title IX, equality within college sports will continue to increase and therefore the lives of women will be helped tenfold. Title IX is helpful to the United States public and it should be continued for years to come, so equality can flourish.


Donnelly, Kara, Sheila Kilkelly, and Nicky Berman. "TITLE IX: GENDER EQUALITY IN SPORTS.” [web page] http://nhs.needham.k12.ma.us/cur/Baker_00/2002


Lopiano, Donna. 2001. "Equity in Women's Sports-A Health and Fairness Perspective," [web page] Feb 2001; http://www.womenssportsfoundation.org /partners /girlzone /issues/rights/article.html?record=121 [Accessed 12 Feb 2005].

Newcombe, Judith P. and Clifton F. Conrad. 1981. "A Theory of Mandated Academic Change," The Journal of Higher Education: 555-577.



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